Monday, September 27, 2010

Precise, accurate, precise GIS successful in distant



Why Shenzhou VI capsule landed in the vast Gobi, the only 22 minutes, search and rescue forces able to reach the scene accurately?

Why do major media for reprinting the images Everest altimeter, and television stations Everest altimeter three-dimensional images so realistic presentation?

In other countries, no large-scale harvesting of duty, how the irrigation machine is running?

Why are huge farm just a few people can manage?

Behind these questions, have a GIS (Geographic Information System) support, it will concentrate the wide world to screen them for decision-making information at your fingertips.

Shenzhou VI, 22 minutes after landing

The smooth return of Shenzhou VI spacecraft is to China in 2005 one of the most important news events, major media have given a very high concern, Shenzhou VI return link in the victory, GIS system for search and rescue decision-making played an important supporting role.

According to news agency Xinhua, the Shenzhou VI spacecraft was at 4:33 on October 17, 2005 landed safely in Inner Mongolia's vast prairies, 22 minutes later, 4:55, search and rescue forces in helicopters arrived at the landing site, to find re-entry capsule of the Shenzhou VI flight to draw a satisfactory conclusion.

In the command hall, big-screen animation that shows the return capsule, rescue helicopters, rescue vehicles between the location and local terrain, these are exactly the same with the situation on the ground.

It is understood that, due to uncertainty about the scope landing capsule, it may be in the vast grassland, jungle, more likely to be in the vast expanse of the ocean. Therefore, in order to ensure the astronauts and the return cabin safety, rescue forces on the one hand experienced, trained personnel, on the other hand, should be able to understand the first spacecraft information.

When the spacecraft began to return, the search and rescue forces have used various types of instruments and equipment to detect, track the capsule to determine the specific location of the landing and after the geographical coordinates from the ground, the air over the direction of the scene.

Search and rescue forces to use the full name of the system is called "the main task of the manned space flight landed field search and rescue decision support system", is based on the domestic development of geographic information system platform, the latest version of MAPGIS. Its role is to spacecraft landing, the visual indication of the return capsule and rescue forces position and state of motion, for the leaders to provide decision-making, in order to find the shortest possible time capsule.

According to GIS platform providers - in the way the digital market, the person in charge, in order to better support the completion of Shenzhou VI capsule of the search and rescue mission, in the manner provided a total of four sets of digital software, which used to launch two large hall screen monitor, a monitoring station installed in the field landed, another set installed in the main search and rescue vehicle.

Earlier, in the way digital-founder Professor Wu Xincai interview also said that in the end of July 2005, early in August when the company had sent over to a 4-member panel, has two Daoda Xichang Satellite Launch Center for Xie Tiao test and in accordance with the requirements of the Test Center, conducted a number of changes to the system, enabling the system to support the three-dimensional graphics presentation.

The spacecraft to return process because the system has been installed on the landing site remote sensing data and terrain topography data, so in return capsule Zhu Jian landing, the spacecraft's landing point and the instantaneous state of theoretical orientation Xinhao sent to search through the monitoring and control system, decision support system which .

The data provided by GPS, the system can simultaneously receive search and rescue helicopters and search and rescue vehicle position signal, the information processing through the system software, and immediately to the Control Center directly reflect the hall screen.

3D image shows the same conditions and reality, headquarters to make decisions based on these information in a timely manner. As the spacecraft's gradual decline, the system can also calculate the spacecraft's landing place, so that rescue forces to arrive as quickly as possible.

It is understood that after several return mission systems used to support only two-dimensional flat panel display, search and rescue system is Shenzhou VI is based in Xi'an Satellite Monitoring of Yaoqiujinxing the redevelopment, and improvement of the original system of three-dimensional and transfer speeds.

Adding a high degree of information, the command will be more intuitive, dynamic understanding of the location of helicopters and rescue vehicles, direction, speed, so that rescuers can return capsule's location at any time to adjust direction and course, as soon as possible after landing in the capsule to reach the landing point search and rescue work. This is also one of God several times in the past six rescue systems and space flight, the biggest difference.

Carrying a GPS to fertilization

The 13th district needs fertilizing, watering needs of the area 9, 4, is the harvest of maize xx kg ... ..., this information can be displayed on the computer screen through the map to access to information, which is the implementation of the system based on GIS precision agriculture lies its charm.

Prior to that, from the Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry is responsible, along with a number of units involved in the establishment of the Beijing Xiaotangshan fine agricultural demonstration base, in order to more clearly understand the project, to interview participants at the project - Modern Precision Agriculture, China Agricultural University System Integration Research Laboratory Associate Professor Liu Gang, told reporters about the base of the building of this story.

Precision agriculture is the earliest concept of Digital Earth decomposed by means of information technology support on the basis spatial variability, positioning, timing and quantitative Shi Shi Yizheng Tao Xian Daihua Agricultural Technique and Technique management system, its technical support primarily through the 3S ( GPS, Global Positioning System; GIS, geographic information systems; RS, remote control systems) to achieve.

By these means, will affect crop yields and crop production, environmental factors (such as soil structure, fertility, topography, climate, pests and diseases) and the actual existence of space, time, integrated information, within the scope of their impact on production of small reasons for the differences, then take appropriate control measures.

This approach changed the traditional agricultural area of the sample, the average investment of the disadvantages of the implementation of demand for crop cultivation and management inputs, including precise planting, precise fertilizer, precision irrigation and accurate harvest these links.

"In the past, we can only village in the land under the circumstances, the management proposals accordingly, but because of geographical large area, providing the recommended target relatively poor. Because in many villages Zhong, Xing block the difference is very large, some may Village South is the black earth, sand north of the village turned into the land. "Gang, for example.

Xiaotangshan agricultural demonstration base a total area of 2462 mu, of which 1944 mu cultivated area, the project's geographic information system is developed from scratch.


"At that time, we get the location information only with a printed map, the map above is an area marked out for the establishment of precision agriculture demonstration bases Xiaotangshan position, without any digital information." Gang recalls.

Because geographic information system is the basis for precision agriculture, to complement these Shuozixinxi, such as Ren Gang began carrying GPS Shebei on a point, a point De Caiji data, sometimes a Zou is a day and, finally finally mastered the entire block of the border and scope.

In this way, through the location information for each data point collection, and gradually the model base region of digital, and digital information based on these will be carried out throughout the land re-planning.

In addition, with the aid of remote sensing Fei Ji, the first year of the sample completed all the land, the following years, also according to the situation and supplementary crop, especially in regions of high and low for Chan Liang measured boundary data.

With this geographic information, the distance of precision agriculture are a very big gap. Precision agriculture is the need to block the information to carry out a comprehensive planting, spraying, irrigation and a series of agricultural practices, serve to reduce pollution, save costs and increase economic efficiency.

Therefore, the collection of soil, biological information has become a focus of the work of the second step, both of which include soil moisture, nutrients, conductivity, even including a water plant nutrients, pests and other information. These data are still relying on manual collection on the one hand, on the other hand using spectral remote sensing and ground planes, etc. to carry out.

"We have done experiments, deliberately place a regional pest, through remote sensing to identify the aircraft, obtained satisfactory results." Gang, said. Aircraft remote sensing data obtained with the normal crop data to compare, they will be able to draw information on crop pests and diseases encountered, and promptly reflected in the systems.

According to Liu Gang describes the model-based very high degree of precision, especially for the control of location information, the staff at work, such as spraying of pesticides is to bring GPS positioning after operation.

Because of the location information with GPS irrigation machine is automatically scheduled in accordance with the system of lines for irrigation, especially harvester, it can be a real-time statistical information for each second harvest. This information will be displayed in the GIS systems, the clear demonstration of the production information of each block.

While these automated operation reduces labor costs, on the other hand, also provides a number of demonstration bases for research data.

According to Liu Gang introduction, the length of 430 meters, automatic irrigation machines to large GIS system based location information automatically move, according to irrigation needs of a region.

"The research shows that more is not put fertilizer, growing crops, the better. If the excessive use of fertilizers will not only increase costs, but also serious environmental pollution. Our experiments is the hope that through geographic information system, location information, crop information, soil information and other aspects of information comprehensive, final value and output value put to find the best ratio between. "Gang told reporters," The purpose of precision agriculture is to improve efficiency on the one hand, the other is through proper fertilization reduce environmental pollution. "

Besides Beijing, China launched a large area in many parts of the practice of precision agriculture operations, such as the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps in the northeast and other regions in developing GIS-based model system of precision agriculture.

More intuitive to Everest altimeter

2005 Everest retest is China's second high Mount Everest in 1975, published 30 years later, again on Everest for the national elevation measurement and significance broad impact. But how to make people not only enjoy the splendor of the world's first peak, but also understand how the measurement is conducted?

For example, can make you understand what mountain line? Measuring point in Everest located? Peak list of small hills in the scene is? How can this measurement into a popular event, so that the image of ordinary people to understand how mapping is all about?

For these purposes, the National Basic Geographic Information Center and Beijing Lingtu Software professional and technical personnel was discussed that the three-dimensional simulations can be achieved.

Using three-dimensional Geographic Information System software to real GIS data, outlined by three-dimensional technology to the real mountain climbers road map, peak height measurement of Mount Qomolangma Schematic of the camp distribution, terrain characteristics, and from the azimuth angle of rotation switch on the Everest region for the true reproduction of the landscape.

March 31, 2005, Lingtu official to the 2005 height determination of the project to provide technical support. Lingtu company with independent intellectual property rights with a three-dimensional visualization of geographic information system software VRMap center for the national fundamental geographic information system developed three-dimensional simulation and measurement of Mount Qomolangma site acquisition, presentation, such as three-dimensional material to provide appropriate technical support and consulting services .

Early in April, VRMap GIS system based on three-dimensional demonstration system synthesis is completed, and all the media began to provide three-dimensional model and three-dimensional map data output effects.

In mid-April, the company decided to go to Everest Lingtu base camp, mainly because a lot of information after the historical image data 20,30 years ago, as the Everest region and the geological changes of the Himalayas, and many topographical features and past the intersection of place, some changes have taken place. In fact, to the base camp was informed of the news to confirm this.

There are several previous high set in the intersection test has been caused by the Rongbuk Glacier movement rolling stone buried in the ground, so that the intersection of the original book can not find, and can only be re-arranged some of the new intersection.

This case, the intersection of output under the original image to the media, errors may occur, but 30 years ago, the true image and the actual film will have quite different view.

To ensure data accuracy and authenticity of images. Lingtu the scene of the Working Group decided to set up Mount Everest, by the Assistant General Manager Mr. Li Hong (an amateur mountain climbing enthusiasts, ham radio, GPS / GIS enthusiasts) as its head, in person at the Everest base camp, direct access first-line information site.

By Shide's Jishu data to be Tuxiang and demonstration system for correcting Gongzuo, measured Gao global Guanxinzhufeng people to provide accurate information.

Decision Everest trip plan, the Working Group began to prepare a variety of equipment to Everest, including the ability to respond to low temperature, high-altitude environment, laptops, satellite phones, GPS, car / handheld radio, video equipment, road tune collection equipment.

Everest because of the special geographical and climatic conditions, cold and oxygen, volatile, dangerous everywhere. Many members of the team because there is no high-altitude adaptation without experience, the project team are purchasing large quantities of high altitude medicine to prepare for contingencies.

April 29, the project team and two cars loaded with equipment, embarked in Tibet began.

April 30, the team to the Da Xining; May 1, in Xining for auto repair, maintenance; May 2, over Riyue Mountain, Qinghai Lake, the team reached Golmud.

May 3, from Golmud to Lhasa in advance, along the Tibetan antelope has been a nature reserve. After noon arrival Wudaoliang, all the way up to reach more than 5 pm Tanggula mouth, drivers have different responses, which replaced Li driving a car. 7, after more than one line to Amdo, because I heard some of the road ahead is not of snow, through the night too dangerous and decided to stay to more than 4800 meters above sea level over the security of the depot.

The two drivers and accompanied by the strong reaction of high altitude photography, Li quickly arranged for them to body temperature, medicine, observation of disease.


May 4, 8 starting point from Amdo depot, along the road conditions are very poor, about 7 to Lhasa urban area; May 5, in Lhasa, rest and maintenance, as a vehicle to enter the base camp area is limited by the project team Surveying and Mapping Bureau of Everest in Tibet handled special permit.

May 6, 318 National Road because of road, take bypass Yangbajain, turning winter Raj pass, after moving to Dazi, 20:00 reach an elevation of 4050 meters of Lazi.

May 7, starting as early as 6:00 to Everest base camp from Lazi embarked as a car crashes on the road until 20:40 or so before reaching the Rongbuk, 9 of them finally into the camp of Mount Qomolangma.

8 May morning, the Working Group and the National Lingtu first Geodetic Survey and Mapping Office team captain Yue Jianli and other leaders had to communicate and listen to the leading three-dimensional model for the Everest a number of changes and requirements. As the high altitude, altitude sickness entourage of more obvious, and 5200 meters of base camp is not suitable stay for long pull. Collective decision was the first major troop withdrawal, Li, photography, and a driver first evacuated down of rest, waiting-hoisting plan identifies.

As the punching and ejection of postponements, May 13 at Tingri and Everest altimeter communicate commander Zhang Yanping, after work, on May 14, Li returned to base camp.

16:00 more time, Li and mountaineers to communicate that, the original intersection point not found, then the re-establishment of the new intersection. By mapping the intersection of the new members of GPS location information described in the original location of the intersection was the scene correction, and the model based on these data, a number of amendments.

May 15 morning, the Working Group adopted the amendments Lingtu the intersection after the data, and on-site by building climbers camp situation, re-draw the road map out of the mountain, the camp location map diagram intersection, and through maritime satellite to the Beijing company These amendments to the information returned from Beijing to help colleagues to make changes on the three-dimensional model, and in a timely manner to the media released the latest version of the information.

May 16, Li bring equipment up to climb from base camp, on the intersection of changes in position on-site verification.

Upon completion of the entire model of the amendment, correction tasks, Li and his entourage began to leave the base camp on the 17th, embarked on the road back to Beijing, Chengdu, 26, arrived after the return flight back to Beijing.

Have applied to the development of

In fact, in addition to the three applications based on GIS systems, the geographic information system industries in our country which has gradually been widely used up. Such as the introduction to the software the number of municipal, engineering investigation and other applications, Mapinfo GIS system introduced municipal pipe network, tax, coal mine safety production applications, the spirit of the three-dimensional mapping software such as urban planning system, have been running all over the country.

September 2005, the Chinese Association of Geographic Information Systems released the third time in Beijing, geographic information system project selection excellent results.

December 31, 2005, interview of GIS Association of China Secretary-General Yu Yongchang, he told reporters that three years from the selection results, the current GIS system in our country plays a prominent role among the 17 areas, including: basic geographic information applications, urban management, land resources management, power and transportation.

Yu Yongchang previously served as deputy director of the National Mapping Bureau for many years, he thought, application effect is to promote the development of GIS industry forward driving force, which has been the development of GIS by the verification process.


From the "human" to "GIS system"

In order for journalists to understand more clearly the definition of GIS systems, Yu Yongchang people, for example, a reporter made a vivid metaphor.

He believes, GIS geographic information system should include the following: the data source (the things on earth), access to means of transport links, background computer systems, software, applications, and several other aspects of the output.

According to this definition, people can be seen as a GIS system, people get information through various senses, reflecting the brain processes the information after the nerves pass from the hands and legs, into real action.

"For example, my original driver, in his brain had a map, guiding him every day in accordance with established travel routes. However, this information can not be easily shared with others, and GIS can do this." Yu Yongchang to reporters cited one such example.

GIS system is also gradually as technology evolved, from the "eyes" of the development of the "brain" of progress, they finally evolved into the current GIS system. Including 18 aircraft and aerial photography early 19th century the emergence of the first computer in 1946 the invention of the first artificial satellite into space in 1957, 1963, the Internet, and early 20th century, the laser ranging technologies.

These technologies to become a computer brain, the nervous system into the Internet, the eyes become satellites, a series of changes makes the GIS system to more truly reflect the human activities, share information.


"Did not expect to have today's development"

According to Yu Yongchang, China's geographic information systems in the late 80s to 90 late this stage, the main work is research satellite positioning applications, application development tests carried out to study the application of the work of the main demonstration.

In 1978, Wuhan University of Surveying and Mapping Professor Wang Zhizhuo proposed all-digital mapping theory, it became the earliest concept of geographic information.

1981, Centre for Remote Sensing Science and Technology Commission was established to enhance access to satellite information, the use of work; 1986, the Planning Commission, Chinese Academy of Sciences set up resources and environment geographic information systems laboratory; Planning Commission was established in 1989, mapping laboratory.

Working to promote a series of geographic information system on the study started, which play an important role in pushing forward an initiative in 1983, the State Planning Commission, Science and Technology Commission approved the establishment by the State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping the nation's first public basic geographic 1:1000000 information database, and also proposed to obtain the tools of geographic information, that is, the traditional means of digital mapping reform.

"At the time, just know that public infrastructure has been established abroad, the geographical information database, but how it created value, we did not know." Yu Yongchang recalls.

So, how in the country after the establishment of the system as soon as possible to push the application, has become the focus of Yu Yongchang have been considering the issue. In 1991, Yu Yongchang visit after returning to the State Department told the ongoing transformation of office automation systems, he thinks this is a good opportunity to promote the system application.

This proposal was quickly adopted, and named the 9202 project - the establishment of comprehensive conditions based on the system of geographical information system, first used in flood prevention and relief. Currently the system has been upgraded to the fourth generation in China based on its established e-government spatial decision support system, to achieve disaster prevention, mitigation, land resources monitoring role.

Construction of public infrastructure than 1:1000000 geographic information database, mapping the traditional means of promoting the work of the resistance to reform is even greater, because there was no one to understand the purpose of transformation.

Yu Yongchang remember, digital mapping system during the process of transformation, a person in charge of Shaanxi Bureau of Surveying and Mapping has pointed Yu Yongchang nose asked: "You told me so in the end the purpose of reform is to what?!"

That withstand such pressure and do not understand, in 1996, seven provinces and cities of Surveying and Mapping Authority of the computer system to achieve the transformation of traditional mapping methods.

Lian Yu Yongchang not thought that the transformation has just completed half of a series of geographic information systems on the digital mission will come one after another, for example, GIS data processing for urban projects, including the city survey, cadastral data sorting and other tasks. A mapping team captain later told Yu Yongchang, said: "Fortunately, you had to listen to a systematic transformation, or else do not know how these tasks to complete."


For GIS in-depth life

Basic geographic information database 1:1000000 public gradually applied in all walks of life, for the development of GIS has laid a solid foundation. After 2000, GIS research turned to China to establish digital basic geographic framework in the hope that China's Geographical, ecological, social and environmental into everyone can see, everyone can use the resource, and that such a system sub- to 4: Digital China, Digital cities, digital city, digital community.

This plan was made, Yu Yongchang, who has not found the appropriate model as a reference, but until this year in September to visit the East after the project to find the true model.

"Before, only a small area GIS, single business area, but this item, Dongcheng District, people and events of community among all of them on the GIS system as a tool to improve government functions." Application of the system Let Yu Yongchang very excited.

Yu Yongchang, Dongcheng District, described is the use of GIS in urban management in the technical ideas to 10,000 square meters as the basic unit, the Dongcheng District, an area of 25.38 square kilometers of area divided into 1652 grid cells. By the urban management unit supervisor in charge of the implementation of the monitoring, implementation of the management of space to achieve stratified, hierarchical, region-wide management approach.

With this geographic information, Dongcheng District, Hai Ba urban objects as urban parts management, will be the region's municipal infrastructure, management facilities, transport facilities, greening urban parts of all facilities in accordance with different functions, divided into six categories 56 kinds of 168 339, each components are reflected in management systems.

Yu Yongchang, frankly admitted in the country already has a lot of GIS applications, the development of the state is still very uneven, especially in the nationwide application of zonal distribution shows the characteristics of the region, the Association and the community for the GIS System Promotion is very important task, from start to adapt to the needs of people, so that GIS system into a tool for socialization.







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